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USA TODAY Sports / NFCA High School Super 25 Softball Rankings: สัปดาห์ที่ 11
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หลุยส์วิลล์กี. - ถ้าคุณเคยได้ยินหยุดเรา: Neshoba Central มาถึงสถานะสุดท้ายของคลาส 5A แล้ว ตำแหน่งแชมป์รัฐมิสซิสซิปปีเจ็ดสมัยและทีมอันดับ 1 ของสหรัฐอเมริกาจะเผชิญหน้ากับ East Central ในวันนี้ในการเปิดการแข่งขันชิงแชมป์สามอันดับแรกที่ Southern Mississippi University Sports / NFCA High School Super 25 ในวันนี้ เกมที่สองจะจัดขึ้นในวันศุกร์และเกมที่สามกำหนดไว้สำหรับวันเสาร์หากจำเป็น (30-0) The Rockets ชนะ 37 เกม ในขณะเดียวกัน№ 2 Lake Creek (36-0), Hewitt-Trussville อันดับสาม (43-2-1), อันดับ 4 Lakewood Ranch (27-2) และ Park Vista อันดับที่ 5 (27-0) ทุกคนยังคงอยู่ต่อ อาชีพที่เกี่ยวข้องลุยทัวร์นาเมนต์ของรัฐและเล่นให้มากขึ้นในอีกไม่กี่วันข้างหน้า ซานอันโตนิโอวอร์เรน (25-2) รู้สึกไม่พอใจในสองเกมสุดท้ายของซีรีส์เพลย์ออฟกับลอสเฟรสนอสทำให้แต่ละทีมจากแปดทีมต่อไปนี้เลื่อนขึ้นหนึ่งรุ่งโดยลดลงจากอันดับหกเป็น 23 ที่อื่น Masuk of Connecticut (14-0) และ Winnakunnett จาก New Hampshire (4-0) เป็นอันดับใหม่ในการจัดอันดับของสัปดาห์นี้ US TODAY Sports / NFCA High School Super 25 ใช้การจัดอันดับของรัฐที่กำหนดโดยโค้ชสมาชิก NFCA ทีมจะถูกเลือกตามคุณภาพคุณภาพของรายการและความแข็งแกร่งของกำหนดการ ในปี 2564 โรงเรียนที่ไม่มีการแข่งขันจะไม่สามารถเข้าร่วมการสำรวจได้ USA TODAY Sports / NFCA High School Super 25 Survey - 13 พ.ค. 2021 อันดับ | ทีม | บันทึก 2021 | เรตติ้งก่อนหน้า 1. Neshoba Central (Miss.): 30-0 - PR: 1 2. Lake Creek (Texas): 36-0 - PR: 2 3. Hewitt-Trussville (Ala.): 43-2-1 - PR : 3 4. Lakewood Ranch (Fl.): 27-2 - PR: 4 5. Park Vista (Fla.): 27-0 - PR: 5 6. Leander (Texas): 32-0 - PR: 7 7. เคลียร์สปริงส์ (เท็กซัส): 26-0 - PR: 8 8. Barbe (La.): 31-2 - PR: 9 9. Norko (California): 17-1 - PR: 10 10. St. Amant (La) .): 25-3 - PR: 11 11. Marist (Ill.): 21-0 - PR: 12 12. New Palestine (Ind.): 23-0 - PR: 13 13. Keystone (Ohio): 26- 1 - PR: 14 14. Burns (SC): 25-1 - PR: 16 15. Rocky Mountain (Idaho): 21-1 - PR: 18 16. Lakota West (Ohio): 25-1 - PR: 19 17 Roncalli (Ind.): 19-2 - PR: 15 18. South Warren (Ki.): 20-1 - PR: 17 19. Bob Jones (Ala.): 33-4 - PR: 20 20. Barber Hill ( Texas): 33-2 - PR: 21 21. Crown Point (Ind.): 21-2 - PR: 22 22. Masuk (Conn.): 14-0 - PR: NR 23. San Antonio Warren (Texas): 25-2 - ประชาสัมพันธ์: 6 24. วินนากุลเนตร (NH): 4-0 - ประชาสัมพันธ์: NR 25. เทรนตัน (ชั้น): 18-1 - ประชาสัมพันธ์: 25 ซ้าย: อัลวิน (เท็กซัส) สเปนปาร์ก (Ala.) NFCA เพื่อทราบข้อมูลเพิ่มเติม USA TODAY Sports / NFCA High School Super 25 Softball Rating: 10th Week USA TODAY Sports / NFCA High School Super 25 Softball Rating: 9th Week USA TODAY Sports / NFCA High School Super 25 Softball Rating: 8th Week USA TODAY Sports / NFCA High School Super 25 อันดับซอฟท์บอล: สัปดาห์ที่ 7
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EPL: ท็อตแนมชนะ Europe’s Wolves: Photos
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ท็อตแนมปลดเปลื้องความหวังของพวกเขาในการผ่านเข้ารอบสำหรับยูโรป้าลีกด้วยการเอาชนะหมาป่า สเปอร์สซึ่งอยู่ห้าคะแนนจากสี่อันดับแรกเพิ่มขึ้นเป็นหกในประตูที่แตกต่างกับเวสต์แฮมสามคะแนนตามหลังเอฟเวอร์ตันซึ่งเล่นต่อมาในวันอาทิตย์ มันเป็นชัยชนะที่สมควรได้รับสำหรับเจ้าของบ้านที่ตีไม้สามครั้งหลังจากสร้างโอกาสที่ยอดเยี่ยมมากมาย แฮร์รี่เคนซึ่งพยายามตีด้วยมือซ้ายอย่างสมบูรณ์แบบเดินไปยังสเปอร์สอย่างใจเย็นจากการส่งบอลครึ่งลูกที่สวยงามของปิแอร์ - เอมิลไฮแบร์ก หมาป่าขู่และบางครั้งก็ถูกบังคับให้ต้องเสี่ยงโชคในช่วงพักและทั้ง Kane และ Dele Alli ชกกันที่มือขวาเป็นเวลาสองสามวินาที Hodzberg ขึ้นนำเป็นสองเท่าของสเปอร์สอย่างน่าประหลาดใจก่อนอื่นต้องขอบคุณการย้ายของผู้รักษาประตู Wolf Rui Patricio Gareth Bale เพื่อย้ายบอลไปที่มุมล่างขวา Romain Saiss, Adam Traore และ Fabio Silva มีโอกาสที่ดีในการตอบสนองต่อผู้มาเยือน แต่นี่ไม่ใช่ครั้งแรกในฤดูกาลนี้ที่ Wolves ซึ่งจบอันดับที่ 12 ของตารางมีวันที่น่าผิดหวัง เครดิต: BBC Similar to: Download Download ... Related
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5 กิจกรรมสนุก ๆ รับซัมเมอร์นี้
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ในที่สุดฤดูร้อนก็มาถึงแล้ว! อย่างไรก็ตามความตื่นเต้นของฤดูกาลที่รอคอยมากที่สุดได้หายไปเล็กน้อยท่ามกลางการแพร่ระบาด เป็นเรื่องปกติมากที่จะเบื่อและคิดถึงยุคโรคระบาดเพราะเราถูกขังอยู่ในบ้านอย่างปลอดภัย นั่นคือวันที่เราทำแผนฤดูร้อนเต็มรูปแบบ ทุกอย่างเป็นไปได้ตั้งแต่วันหยุดพักผ่อนไปจนถึงการสังสรรค์กับเพื่อน ๆ แต่ชีวิตเปลี่ยนไปสำหรับทุกคนและเราไม่สามารถทำอะไรกับมันได้ เพื่อให้เกิดประโยชน์สูงสุดเราได้จัดทำโซลูชันเสมือนจริงสองสามอย่างเพื่อ "รักษาความปลอดภัยและสุขภาพที่ดี" ไว้ที่บ้าน อ่านต่อเพื่อค้นหาวิธีแก้ปัญหาเหล่านี้ การเปิดตัว OTT ล่าสุดของ Binge-watch เรารู้ว่านี่เป็น "สิ่งสนุก ๆ " ที่คุณสามารถหาได้จากเว็บไซต์ออนไลน์ใด ๆ ปีที่แล้วเราเห็น OTT ออกมามากมายและมันก็คุ้มค่า มีซีรีส์และภาพยนตร์หลายเรื่องที่คาดว่าจะดึงดูดคุณได้ยาวนานที่สุดในปีนี้เช่นกัน นอกจากนี้ยังเป็นวิธีที่ดีที่สุดในการฆ่าเวลาในระหว่างการกักกัน บางทีการผูกพันกับคนที่รักอาจเป็นข้อแก้ตัวที่ดี เตรียมของว่างที่คุณชื่นชอบและเพลิดเพลินไปกับความสนุกสนานละครและความบันเทิงที่จริงจัง! การเล่นเกมออนไลน์การเล่นเกมเป็นหนึ่งในกิจกรรมยามว่างที่ได้รับความนิยมมากที่สุด ผู้ที่ไม่ใช่นักเล่นเกมจำนวนมากหันมาใช้โลกแห่งความเป็นจริงเช่นเดียวกับเกมออนไลน์เพื่อเอาชนะความเบื่อหน่ายจากการล็อก มีเกมมากมายที่คุณสามารถเล่นออนไลน์ได้ คุณสามารถเริ่มต้นด้วยเกมโปรดที่คุณชื่นชอบในโลกแห่งความเป็นจริง ตัวอย่างเช่นเหล้ารัมของอินเดียเป็นที่นิยมอย่างมากและมีผู้เล่นหลายล้านคนที่ชื่นชอบเกมนี้ ผู้ให้บริการรัมมี่ออนไลน์ยอดนิยมเช่น Junglee Rummy เป็นเจ้าภาพจัดการแข่งขันที่น่าตื่นเต้นทุกสัปดาห์และทุกเดือน ผู้เล่นสามารถแสดงทักษะของตนเองและรับรางวัลที่น่าทึ่งรวมถึงรูปีและรางวัลเงินสดเทียบเท่ากับรูปี การเล่นเกมออนไลน์อย่างรัมมี่นั้นสนุกและน่าตื่นเต้นแม้ว่าจะปิดอยู่ก็ตาม Board Game Night ใครเกลียดเกมกระดาน? ฉันไม่รู้! ในอดีตฤดูร้อนเป็นเกมกระดานทั้งหมด ตั้งแต่ลูโดไปจนถึงคาร์รอมคุณต้องเติบโตมาพร้อมกับการเล่นเกมที่ยอดเยี่ยมกับเพื่อนและครอบครัวของคุณ การรื้อฟื้นความทรงจำเก่า ๆ ในปี 2021 เป็นอย่างไรบ้าง? ทำความสะอาดสิ่งสกปรกบนกระดานคาร์อมหรือกระดานหมากรุกและเชิญเพื่อนของคุณมาร่วมสนุกกับเกมกระดานยามค่ำคืน บางทีคุณอาจวางแผนการแข่งขันทั้งหมดและเล่นด้วยเงินเดิมพันเพื่อเพิ่มความสนุกเป็นสองเท่า คุณยังสามารถให้ของว่างแก่เพื่อนของคุณเพื่อเล่นเกมหลาย ๆ เกมและจัดปาร์ตี้เล็ก ๆ เนื่องจากการแพร่ระบาดของแฮงเอาท์กลุ่มเสมือนทำให้หลายคนทำงานอยู่ที่บ้านอย่างถาวรและดูเหมือนจะขาดการติดต่อกับโลกภายนอก โชคดีที่มีหลายวิธีในการติดต่อกันโดยไม่ได้พบกับคนที่คุณรัก ด้วยเทคโนโลยีทำให้เราสามารถติดต่อกับญาติและเพื่อนทางไกลได้ ดังนั้นหากคุณพลาดโทรหรือแฮงเอาท์วิดีโอหรือส่งข้อความ แฮงเอาท์กลุ่มเสมือนได้รับความนิยมอย่างมากในช่วงปีที่ผ่านมา ผู้คนติดตั้งแอปอย่าง Google Duo หรือ Zoom และเชื่อมต่อกับผู้คนทั่วโลก !! เรียนรู้ทักษะใหม่ ๆ การเรียนรู้ทักษะใหม่ ๆ จะไม่มีวันล้าสมัย มีเวลาว่างมากมายที่คุณสามารถใช้มันได้หากคุณเรียนรู้ทักษะใหม่ ๆ หากคุณเป็นมืออาชีพในการทำงานคุณสามารถเรียนหลักสูตรออนไลน์เพื่อยกระดับทักษะของคุณได้ หากคุณเป็นนักเรียนคุณสามารถเลือกเรียนภาษาใหม่หรือการเขียนโปรแกรมคอมพิวเตอร์ได้ หากคุณมีกีตาร์อยู่ในร้านคุณสามารถเข้าร่วมหลักสูตรการเรียนรู้กีตาร์ออนไลน์และใช้งานได้ ไม่ว่าคุณจะเรียนรู้ทักษะใดคุณก็จะได้รับประโยชน์จากทักษะนั้นไม่ทางใดก็ทางหนึ่งเสมอ เราหวังว่าวิธีการเหล่านี้จะช่วยคุณและเข้าร่วมการเดินทางของเราเพื่ออยู่ร่วมกันในสัปดาห์ที่อบอุ่นของปี เล่นรัมมี่ออนไลน์และรับรางวัลสุดพิเศษเพื่อทำให้ฤดูร้อนเป็นที่จดจำ ลงทะเบียนสำหรับแพลตฟอร์มที่มีการใช้งานมากที่สุด Junglee Rummy และรับโบนัสต้อนรับ $ 5250 ในบัญชีของคุณ เกมสนุก!
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Ersan Ilyasova’s offseason patience pays off
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Free agency had ended but, for Ersan Ilyasova, the work had just begun. Scroll through the forward’s Instagram account, and you’d get a taste of how an NBA veteran stays busy when he doesn’t have an NBA contract. You’d see drill after sweat-soaking drill in a high school gymnasium. You’d see him get shots up in a blizzard. “No excuses,” he says. “I tried to work on my game every day,” Ilyasova said. “I truly believed an opportunity would come at some point. I always tried to be ready — to practice and lift, whatever it takes. And after months of work, finally, you’d see Ilyasova in a Utah Jazz uniform. “For this opportunity to come up, it’s a great one,” the forward said Thursday after his first practice in Salt Lake City. “I’m looking forward to it.” The Jazz officially added Ilyasova to their roster Wednesday, bolstering the team’s already deep bench in preparation for an even deeper playoff run. “I see it’s a great group of guys,” Ilyasova said. “The communication is there. They trust each other. I watched the games before — the way they play and the chemistry is at a high level. When you see the way they play, share the ball, move the ball, everybody back each other, this is what it takes to win a championship.” Ilyasova’s C.V. includes more than 850 regular season and playoff appearances over 12 years in the NBA. The Turkish forward averaged 20 minutes per game in the 2018 postseason with the 76ers. He logged 18 minutes a night in the playoffs two seasons with the Milwaukee Bucks. “He’s a pro,” Jazz head coach Quin Snyder said. “Any time you have that type of experience, it’s something you bring to the entire group.” The coach called Ilyasova’s skill set and personality a “plug-and-play” fit for this Jazz team. The team’s front office wouldn’t have come calling otherwise. “One thing we’re really conscious of is the chemistry of the team,” Snyder said. “Ersan wants to be a part of that. I think he’s anxious to contribute in any way that he can.” Ilyasova can provide even more size and shooting to the Jazz’s frontcourt. The forward stands 6-foot-9 and has shot 36.5 percent from 3 over his career. “This is the way I play,” Ilyasova said. “Obviously unselfish. If you’re open shoot. Share the ball. Pick up your guy.” But how quickly Ilyasova finds his role in Utah remains to be seen. “He’s got to assimilate. There’s a lot for him to get exposed to. But being a smart, intelligent player, a guy that knows how to play, he’ll fit in well,” Snyder said. “We don’t expect him to show up and be ready right away. That’s not to say he won’t be. But there’s an adjustment period and we’re patient with him. I want him to be patient with himself.” When it comes to waiting for the right moment, Ilyasova has already shown his willingness to be patient this season. “This team of course is having a great season,” he said. “I try to not interrupt and at the same time just kind of learn. As the season goes, I will pick it up.”
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Staying in Control when Playing Poker Online
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Much like when you place a sports bet, gamble in a casino or even try your luck at playing bingo, when you choose to play poker online you do, of course, need to stay in control and have a sensible playing strategy in place. You stand just as much chance of losing when playing poker as when you set about gambling in any shape or form, but the most poker players know there is an element of skill about that game and each of the many different poker game variants, and that is what they are looking to exploit when playing. This article is going to be reminding you of the days of losing control when playing poker online and will additionally ensure that you are away of the many additional tools and options you can take as an online real money poker player to allow you to stay in control when playing too. The first thing I always do advise anyone that wishes to venture into the online poker environment, however, is to first and foremost ensure the sites they choose to play at, if living in the United Kingdom, are those that hold a full UK Gambling Commission issued gambling license. That way above all else you will know the games are fair, your funds are secure at those sites, too, and you will have a range of responsible gambling tools and option settings at your disposal when playing at such sites, too. As for just how you can remove the risk of you being tempted to gamble at those Non GamStop poker sites in the future, well one quite and easy way you can stop yourself from ever being in a position to sign up to those other sites, is by simply downloading a blocker tool onto your computer and mobile devices. Taking Steps to Give Up Gambling You may have come to the conclusion that you do have a gambling problem and when you do then you will always need to know just what help and support is available to you, and there is plenty of support out there if you are prepared to reach out and ask for it. As for what ways you can set about getting help and support with any gambling problems you do have, spend as much time as you need and require checking out websites such at both the Gamblers Anonymous and GamCare websites. They both offer a lot of practical advice and will certainly point you in the right direction of where to get help with any gambling problems. Keep in mind though that once you do admit to yourself that you have a gambling problem you are going to have to start closing down online and mobile gambling site accounts that you have, and that could take you quite some time of course if you have lots of such accounts open. However, you can head on over to the GamStop website right now and what you can do when you arrive at their website is sign up to their United Kingdom gambling industry wide self-exclusion register. On you have signed up onto that register all United Kingdom-based gambling site operators are then going to close your accounts with them down and to ensure you do not try to gamble at those sites again in the future each of them will block you from being able to do so. Stay Away from Non-UK Licensed Poker Sites One final thing that you need bringing to your attention, if you are now determined to give up playing poker and gambling online, is that there are quite a number of casinos, poker and other gambling sites that are not located or licensed in the United Kingdom. That does, of course, mean that even if you do sign up to the GamStop self-exclusion register you are still always going to be more than welcome to sign up to and then gamble at those other sites and will never be blocked form doing so even if you are on that register. A gambling site blocker as they are known has one simple yet highly effective purpose and that is to block you from being able to access any website that is related to gambling, and therefore by not being able to access those sites you will never have the chance of giving in to temptation and gambling at any of them.
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Partypoker adds new MyGame Whiz to Online Poker Client
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Every poker player wants to improve their game. It is quite common for poker players to use tools such as hand histories to review gameplay and try to make different decisions based on certain scenarios. At partypoker, the online poker platform has released a new tool called MyGame Whiz that allows players to improve their game and make fewer mistakes along the way. The new feature is an extension of the MyGame tool and works as a personal poker trainer. What is MyGame Whiz? New players can benefit from the MyGame Whiz tool for a number of reasons. Because the tool is a trainer, it helps to avoid common mistakes. The tool includes one-on-one communication to personalize the experience for each player. The tool studies each player’s game style, including how a hand is played. The tool has access to hand history and studies the hands of each player, not the opponent. Personal hand history is used to provide tips and suggestions on what you can do to improve your decision-making skills. Targeted messages allow you to make decisions in real time and improve your win/loss record. Each player will receive messages that are created for them specifically based on table actions. Interactive commentary is also provided as players compete to help with game moves. Choose to replay, save, and share hands as you like with this new tool. The more hands you play, the more advice you will receive. This helps to know how to strategize based on a wide range of poker hand situations. Another unique aspect to this tool is that questions can be asked to MyGame Whiz. By asking questions, you receive customized replays to help with any questions or advice needed. Creating a Poker Tutor Basically, partypoker has created a poker tutor for its members. With instant feedback, it’s like working with a real person online. The tool works for each player individually, just as a tutor would in real life. Every player can work to improve their game, no matter how skilled or experienced. The tool is specialized so it caters to your skill level. Partypoker officials pointed out that they wanted to create a tool that would give players something to use at the beginning of their poker journey to improve their game. It is particularly helpful for players who are brand-new to online poker. For new players, the tool includes report cards so you can track your progress. See what you have improved on as well as how you can make changes to improve in certain areas. If you have less time to study the game, the MyGame Whiz does the work for you. Simply review the details and you will be able to analyze your gaming and make smart decisions in the future as you play. Check out the new tool today by logging in to the partypoker client. Review your gaming and see what changes you can complete the improve each decision you make while playing in cash games and tournaments.
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Build a Beautiful Site in the WordPress Mobile Apps with Predesigned Page Layouts
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Build a Beautiful Site in the WordPress Mobile Apps with Predesigned Page Layouts We think you’ll love the new Starter Page Layouts feature. Thomas Bishop Your WordPress mobile app is a convenient way to create and manage your WordPress site. Now, you can design a new page right from your phone or tablet — and build the site of your dreams — with predesigned page layouts. Introducing starter page layouts Not all of us are designers, and building a page on your site with the layout in your mind can be intimidating and time-consuming — but it doesn’t have to be that way! Now when you create a new page on WordPress for iOS or Android, you can choose from premade layouts. You can also customize them to fit your needs, right from the block editor. Choosing a layout When you create a new page in the app, you’ll see a list of premade page layouts, including about pages, contact pages, team pages, services pages, and more. Whether you’re the owner of an online shop of sustainably made clothing, the founder of a newly formed digital magazine, or a financial strategist who’s just launched a consulting business, you can use these premade layouts to build the most essential pages on your website. Once you find a layout that you’d like to try, tap it to select it. After you’ve selected a layout, you can either preview it or create a new page with the chosen layout. Ready to try these new Starter Page Layouts? Be sure to update your WordPress app to the latest version. If you don’t have the app yet, download it for free, on both Android and iOS. We’d love to hear your feedback on these new layouts. Reach out to us from within the app by going to My Site, tapping your photo on the top right, tapping Help & Support,  and then selecting Contact Support. Like this:Like Loading... Related Previous PostShowcase Your Figma Designs on WordPress P2
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Serena Williams shows off her unreal defense on this point
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Serena’s husband rips tennis administrator after win
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Serena Williams' husband Alexis Ohanian has fired another shot at Madrid Open owner Ion Tiriac after Williams booked yet another Australian Open semi-final appearance.Williams was in imperious form in her quarter-final clash against Simona Halep, thoroughly dismantling the No.2 seed en-route to a 6-3 6-3 win at Rod Laver Arena.Watch the Australian Open with live streams of every court at 9Now. Click here to start watching!The 39-year-old has looked extremely sprightly after being forced to pull out of the French Open early last year through injury, chasing down balls defensively with the same ferocity she did earlier in her career. Williams' vintage showing so far in the Australian Open has silenced many of her critics who believed her chances of winning another Grand Slam title were slim, with Tiriac one of the more vocal critics.Williams was in untouchable form against Simona Halep in her Australian Open quarter-final clash (Getty)Following Williams' dominant display against Halep and advanced to her 40th Grand Slam semi-final, Ohanian made sure to stick the boot into Tiriac on social media."Good thing no one listens to that racist sexist (clown) Tiriac," he tweeted.The tweet wasn't the first time Ohanian had taken aim at Tiriac and called him racist and sexist, after also doing so late last year when Tiriac called out Williams' physique."At this age and the weight she is now, she does not move as easily as she did 15 years ago," Tiriac said on Romanian TV."Serena was a sensational player. If she had a little decency, she would retire." Williams' improved lateral movement has stood out so far in her Australian Open campaign, with her agility a far cry from the version of her fans saw in Melbourne Park last year when she was hampered by ankle and Achilles issues.Williams' coach Patrick Mouratoglou admitted this week that her withdrawal from the French Open last year had allowed the 23-time Grand Slam winner to get out of a "vicious circle".Williams' lateral movement has been noticeably improved after she had been hampered by injuries (Getty)"We've been struggling those last years because she had a lot of injuries, so she was not able to practice the way we wanted," he said."It's a bit of a vicious circle because when you can't practice well, you don't get fit. When you're not fit, you get more injured. We had to get out of this vicious circle."In Roland Garros she had an injury that could get really worse, and that would have been extremely bad. That was definitely the right decision to stop, to heal, and to start working hard because she was able after that to do the necessary work in order to get fit."Now we're more in a virtuous circle than a vicious one. You have to start that virtuous circle by being fit, then everything goes better."For a daily dose of the best of the breaking news and exclusive content from Wide World of Sports, subscribe to our newsletter by clicking here!
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Criticisms of Michael Slepian’s Stanford study on poker tells and hand movements (published 2015)
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Some places the study was featured. The following is reposted from a 2015 piece I wrote for Bluff magazine. It was originally located at this URL but has become unavailable due to Bluff going out of business. I saw this study mentioned recently in Maria Konnikova’s book ‘The Biggest Bluff’ and was reminded about this piece and noticed it was offline, so I wanted to share it again. A few notes on this piece: The original title below and was more negative-sounding than I liked; Bluff chose it. Also, if I could rewrite this piece now, I’d probably choose less negative-sounding phrasing in some places.  Regardless of the exact factors that might be at work in the found correlation, I realize it’s scientifically interesting that a significant correlation was found. But I also think it’s possible to draw simplistic and wrong conclusions from the study, and my piece hopefully gives more context about the factors that might be at work. Image on left taken from Michael Slepian’s media page. The Slepian Study on Betting Motions Doesn’t Pass Muster A 2013 study¹ conducted at Stanford University by graduate student Michael Slepian and associates found a correlation between the “smoothness” of a betting motion and the strength of the bettor’s hand. In a nutshell, there was a positive correlation found between betting motions perceived as “smooth” and “confident” and strong hands. The quality of the betting motions was judged by having experiment participants watch short clips of players making bets (taken from the 2009 WSOP Main Event) and estimate the hand strength of those bets. This experiment has gotten a lot of press over the last couple years. I first heard about it on NPR. Since, I’ve seen it referenced in poker blogs and articles and in a few mainstream news articles. I still occasionally hear people talk about it at the table when I play. I’ve had friends and family members reference it and send me links to it. It’s kind of weird how much attention it received, considering the tons of interesting studies that are constantly being done, but I guess it can be chalked up to the mystique and “sexiness” of poker tells. The article had more than casual interest for me. I’m a former professional poker player and the author of two books on poker behavior: Reading Poker Tells and Verbal Poker Tells. I’ve been asked quite a few times about my opinion on this study, and I’ve been meaning to look at the study more closely and write up my thoughts for a while. In this article, I’ll give some criticisms of the study and some suggestions for how this study (and similar studies) could be done better. This isn’t to denigrate the work of the experiment’s designers. I think this is an interesting study, and I hope it will encourage similar studies using poker as a means to study human behavior. But I do think it was flawed in a few ways, and it could be improved in many ways. That’s not to say that I think their conclusion is wrong; in fact, in my own experience, I think their conclusion is correct. I do, however, think it’s a very weak general correlation and will only be practically useful if you have a player-specific behavioral baseline. My main point is that this study is not enough, on its own, to cause us to be confident about the conclusion. I’ll give a few reasons for why I think the study is flawed, but the primary underlying reason is a common one for studies involving poker: the study’s organizers just don’t know enough about how poker works. I’ve read about several experiments involving poker where the organizers were very ignorant about some basic aspects of poker, and this affected the way the tests were set up and the conclusions that were reached (and this probably applies not just to poker-related studies but to many studies that involve an activity that requires a lot of experience to understand well). Poker can seem deceptively simple to people first learning it, and even to people who have played it for decades. Many bad players lose money at poker while believing that they’re good, or even great players. In the same way, experiment designers may falsely believe they understand the factors involved in a poker hand, while being far off the mark. Here are the flaws, as I see them, in this study: 1. The experimenters refer to all WSOP entrants as ‘professional poker players.’ This first mistake wouldn’t directly affect the experiment, but it does point to a basic misunderstanding of poker and the World Series of Poker, which might indirectly affect other aspects of the experiment and its conclusions. Here are a couple examples of this from the study: The World Series of Poker (WSOP), originating in 1970, brings together professional poker players every year (from the study’s supplemental materials) These findings are notable because the players in the stimulus clips were highly expert professionals competing in the high-stakes WSOP tournament. The WSOP Main Event is open to anyone and most entrants are far from being professional poker players. Categorizing someone’s poker skill can be difficult and subjective, but Kevin Mathers, a long-time poker industry worker, estimates that only 20% of WSOP Main Event entrants are professional (or professional-level) players. This also weakens the conclusion that the results are impressive due to the players analyzed being professional-level. While the correlation found in this experiment is still interesting, it is somewhat expected that amateur players would have behavioral inconsistencies. I’d be confident in predicting that a similar study done on only video clips of bets made by professional poker players would not find such a clear correlation. 2. Hand strength is based on comparing players’ hands This is a line from the study that explains their methodology for categorizing a player’s hand as ‘weak’ or ‘strong’: Each player’s objective likelihood of winning during the bet was known (WSOP displays these statistics on-screen; however, we kept this information from participants by obscuring part of the screen). They relied on the on-screen percentage graphics, which are displayed beside a player’s hand graphics in the broadcast. These graphics show the likelihood of a player’s hand winning; it does this by comparing it to the other players’ known hands. This makes it an illogical way to categorize whether a player believes he is betting a weak or strong hand. If this isn’t clear, here’s a quick example to make my point: A player has QQ and makes an all-in bet on a turn board of Q-10-10-8. Most people would say that this player has a strong hand and has every reason to believe he has a strong hand. But, if his opponent had 10-10, the player with Q-Q would have a 2.27% chance of winning with one card to come. According to this methodology, the player with the Q-Q would be judged as having a weak hand; if the test participants categorized that bet as representing a strong hand, they would be wrong. It’s not stated in the study or the supplemental materials if the experimenters accounted for such obvious cases of how using the percentage graphics might skew the results. It’s also not stated how the experimenters would handle river (last-round) bets, when one hand has a 100 percent winning percentage and the losing hand has 0 percent (the only exception would be a tie). It’s admittedly difficult to come up with hard-and-fast rules for categorizing hand strength for the purposes of such an experiment. As someone who has thought more than most about this problem, for the purpose of analyzing and categorizing poker tells, I know it’s a difficult task. But using the known percentages of one hand beating another known hand is clearly a flawed approach. The optimal approach would probably be to come up with a system that pits a poker hand against a logical hand range, considering the situation, or even a random hand range, and uses that percentage-of-winning to rank the player’s hand strength. If this resulted in too much hand-strength ambiguity, the experiment designers could throw out all hands where the hand strength fell within a certain medium-strength range. Such an approach would make it more likely that only strong hand bets and weak hand bets were being used and, equally important for an experiment like this, that the player believed he or she was betting either a strong or weak hand. 3. Situational factors were not used to categorize betting motions When considering poker-related behavior, situations are very important. A small continuation-bet on the flop is different in many ways from an all-in bet on the river. One way they are different: a small bet is unlikely to cause stress in the bettor, even if the bettor has a weak hand. Also, a player making a bet on an early round has a chance for improving his hand; whereas a player betting on the river has no chance to improve his hand. When a player bets on the river, he will almost always know whether he is bluffing or value-betting; this is often not the case on earlier rounds, when hand strength is more ambiguous and undefined. This experiment had no system for selecting the bets they chose for inclusion in the study. The usability of the clips was apparently based only on whether the clip meant certain visual needs of the experiment: i.e., did the footage show the entirety of the betting action and did it show the required amount of the bettor’s body? From the study: Research assistants, blind to experimental hypotheses, extracted each usable video in each installment, and in total extracted 22 videos (a standard number of stimuli for such studies; Ambady & Rosenthal, 1993) for Study 2 in the main text. Study 1 videos required a single player be in the frame from the chest-up, allowing for whole-body, face-only, and arms-only videos to be created by cropping the videos. These videos were therefore more rare, and the research assistants only acquired 20 such videos. The fact that clips were chosen only based on what they showed is not necessarily a problem. If a hand can be accurately categorized as strong or weak, then it doesn’t necessarily matter when during a hand it occurred. If there is a correlation between perceived betting motion quality and hand strength, then it will probably make itself known no matter the context of the bet. Choosing bets only from specific situations would have made the experiment stronger and probably would have led to more definite conclusions. It could also help address the problem of categorizing hand strength. For example, if the experiment designers had only considered bets above a certain size that had occurred on the river (when all cards are out and there are no draws or semi-bluffs to be made), then that would result in polarized hand strengths (i.e., these bets would be very likely to be made with either strong or weak hands). Also, the experiment’s method for picking clips sounds like it could theoretically result in all strong-hand bets being picked, or all weak-hand bets being picked. There is nothing in the experiment description that requires a certain amount of weak hands or strong hands. This is not in itself bad, but could affect the experiment in unforeseen ways. For example, if most of the betting motion clips chosen were taken from players betting strong hands (which would not be surprising, as most significant bets, especially post-flop, are for value), then this could introduce some unforeseen bias into the experiment. One way this might happen: when a video clip shows only the betting motion (and not, for example, the bettor’s entire torso or just the face, as were shown to some study groups), this focus might emphasize the bet in the viewer’s mind and make the bet seem stronger. And if most of the hands-only betting clips were of strong-hand bets (and I have no idea how many were), the study participants watching only the hand-motion betting clips would falsely appear to be making good guesses. My main point here is that thinking about the situational factors of a betting motion, and incorporating that into the experiment in some way, would have resulted in less ambiguity about the results. (It appears that it was difficult to find usable clips from a single WSOP event; in that case, the experimenters could just add footage from another WSOP Main Event to the study.) 4. The number of chips bet was not taken into account The experiment designers did not take into account the chips that were bet. In their words: During betting, each player pushes poker chips into the center of the table. Each chip has a specific color, which indicates a specific value. These values range from $25 to $100,000. This range of chip values has a crucial consequence for the current work. The number of chips does not correlate with the quality of the hand (see Table 1A in the main text). Players could move a stack of 20 chips into the center of the table, and this could be worth $500 or $2,000,000 (the winner of the 2009 WSOP won $8,547,042, thus the latter bet magnitude is a bet that can be made in the WSOP). Because no participants were professional poker players, nor considered themselves poker experts, they were not aware of chip values. They could not, then, use the number of chips as a valid cue to judge poker hand quality. It’s true that your average person would not know what the chip colors at the WSOP Main Event mean. But it seems naïve to think that seeing the chips being bet couldn’t possibly have an effect on the experiment. For one thing, the number of chips being bet could bias a participant to think a bet was stronger or weaker, whether correctly or incorrectly. What if all the strong-hand bets in the study were also bets that involved a lot of chips? (This is not implausible because smaller bets with weak hands are common early in a hand, when bets are small, whereas larger bets later in the hand are more likely to represent strong hands.) And what if some of the study participants were able to deduce (consciously or unconsciously) the strength of the bet from the number of chips? Also, it’s possible that some of the test participants were knowledgeable (consciously or not) about some WSOP chip colors and what their denominations were. Or they were able to deduce (consciously or not), from the arrangement and number of chips, what the chip values were. (For example, large denomination chips are generally required to be kept at the front of a player’s stack.) Again, this could have been addressed by selecting bets taken only from specific situations and only of certain bet sizes. If all bets chosen were above a certain bet size, and this was communicated to the study participants, then this would have lessened the impact of the chips being able to be seen. 5. Quality of “smoothness” was subjective The experiment was based on the perceptions of study participants watching the assembled video clips. It was not based on objective measurements of what constitutes “smoothness” of a betting motion. This was a known issue in the experiment: Thus, both player confidence and smoothness judgments significantly predicted likelihoods of winning, which suggests that movement smoothness might be a valid cue for assessing poker hand quality. It is unknown, however, how participants interpreted “smoothness” or whether the players’ movements that participants rated as smooth were truly smoother than other players’ movements. Other physical factors, such as speed, likely played a role. This is not a major criticism; I think using perception is a fine way to find a correlation, especially for a preliminary study. But I think it does mean that we have no reason to be confident in the idea that smoothness of betting motion is correlated with hand strength. If there is are correlations between betting motion and hand strength (which I believe there are), these could be due to other aspects of arm motion or hand motion, such as: the betting speed, the position of the hands, the height of the hand, or other, more obscure, factors. In summary Again, I don’t mean to denigrate the experiment designers and the work they’ve done. I think this was an interesting experiment, and I think it’s probable the correlation they noticed exists (however weak the correlation may be). Also, as someone who is very interested in poker behavior, I’d love to see similar studies be done. My main goal in writing these criticisms and suggestions was to emphasize that poker is complex, as is poker behavior. There are many behavioral factors in a seemingly simple hand of poker and taking these factors into account can make an experiment stronger and the results more conclusive. Patricia Cardner, PhD, EdD, is a poker player and the author of Positive Poker, a book about the psychological characteristics of professional poker players. She had this to say about poker’s use in scientific studies: “While researchers often have the best of intentions, it is difficult for them to fully understand the nuances of poker. Researchers who reach out to poker players for help can make more informed decisions about the research areas they choose to pursue, increase reliability and validity, and improve the overall quality of their results and conclusions.” ¹: Slepian, M.L., Young, S.G., Rutchick, A.M. & Ambady, N. Quality of Professional Players’ Poker Hands Is Perceived Accurately From Arm Motions. Psychological Science (2013) 24(11) 2335–2338. Related
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