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22Bet ได้เปิดตัวข้อเสนอการคืนเงินสำหรับ 20H IIHF World Championship โปรโมชั่นนี้ช่วยให้ผู้เล่นได้รับเงินสด 8% เป็นประวัติการณ์สูงถึงເອີ 1,000 เมื่อปีที่แล้ว 22Bet ได้ยกระดับโปรโมชั่นหนังสือกีฬาโดยเสนอขายรถยนต์หลายคัน ตอนนี้ บริษัท ตั้งเป้าที่จะเขย่าตลาดอีกครั้งโดยเสนอเดิมพันที่ดีขึ้นสำหรับฟุตบอลโลก IIHF Hockey World Cup ปี 2021 ที่ริกาประเทศลัตเวีย นี่คือสิ่งที่คุณคาดหวังได้จากโปรโมชั่น: เงินคืน: 8% ของยอดเดิมพันทั้งหมดວາງการคืนเงินขั้นต่ำ ຳ: จำนวนเงินคืนสูงสุด 10 ยูโร: ເອີ 1,000 สิทธิ์: การเดิมพันในข้อเสนอของ IIHF World Championship Game Chance 1 เดือน: ฟรีเครดิตวันที่: เมืองเจ้าภาพและสนามกีฬาชิงแชมป์โลก IIHF ปี 2021 จัดขึ้นที่เมืองริกาประเทศลัตเวีย การแข่งขันจะเล่นที่สนามกีฬาสองแห่งคือศูนย์กีฬาโอลิมปิกและสนามกีฬาริกา สถานที่แรกจุผู้ชมได้ 6,200 คนในขณะที่สถานที่ที่สองจุได้ 10,300 คน ในตอนแรกมินสค์เบลารุสได้รับเลือกให้เป็นเจ้าภาพร่วม แต่ประเทศในยุโรปตะวันออกถูกละเมิดเนื่องจากสถานการณ์ด้านความปลอดภัยและความปลอดภัยในประเทศ ทีมและทีมชิงแชมป์โลก IIHF จะมีตัวแทนจาก 15 ประเทศและคณะกรรมการโอลิมปิก 1 ทีม (เป็นตัวแทนนักกีฬาจากรัสเซียซึ่งทีมชาติถูกห้ามไม่ให้แข่งขันเนื่องจากถูกคุมขัง) คณะกรรมการแบ่งออกเป็นสองกลุ่มดังต่อไปนี้: กลุ่ม A, กลุ่ม B, คณะกรรมการโอลิมปิก, รัสเซีย, แคนาดา, สวีเดน, ฟินแลนด์, สาธารณรัฐเช็ก, สหรัฐอเมริกา, สวิตเซอร์แลนด์, เยอรมนี, สโลวาเกีย, ลัตเวีย, เดนมาร์ก, นอร์เวย์, เบลารุส, บริเตนใหญ่, ผู้ยิ่งใหญ่คาซัคสถาน 2021 IIHF World Championship Odds ตามส่วนใหญ่ ทั้งสองทีมสามารถได้รับการสนับสนุนสำหรับอัตราต่อรองระหว่าง 3.25 ถึง 5.50 คุณเป็นแฟนของการเดิมพันที่คิดไม่ถึงหรือไม่? จากนั้นกลับไปที่บริเตนใหญ่ในตลาดผู้ชนะทั้งหมดและรับสูงถึง 1,500: 1 เดิมพัน 100 ยูโรในโอกาสแปลก ๆ เหล่านี้และคุณจะกลับบ้านพร้อมຄວາມ 150,000 เจ๋งถ้าทีม GB ได้ถ้วย IIHF ข้อห้ามสำหรับ COVID-19 ชิงแชมป์โลก IIHF ปี 2021 เนื่องจากการแพร่ระบาด IIHF ต้องใช้มาตรการด้านความปลอดภัยเพิ่มเติมเพื่อปกป้องสุขภาพของผู้เล่นโค้ชและเจ้าหน้าที่: เกมทั้งหมดจะเล่นในเมืองเดียวกัน (ริกาลัตเวีย) ทั้ง 16 ทีมจะอยู่ในโรงแรมเดียว ห้ามมิให้แฟนเพลงเข้าร่วมงาน วิธีการเดิมพันในเกมชิงแชมป์โลก IIHF ปี 2021 ผู้ใช้ 22Bet จะสามารถวางเดิมพันและเดิมพันในเกมชิงแชมป์โลก IIHF ปี 2021 ทั้งหมดได้ แต่ละเกมมาพร้อมกับลายเซ็นของเราซึ่งเป็นตัวเลือกชั้นนำของอุตสาหกรรมในตลาดการพนันกีฬา ผู้เล่นบน 22Bet จะสามารถรับโบนัสเงินฝาก 100% ในครั้งแรกที่โพสต์ โบนัสเหล่านี้สามารถใช้เพื่อสะสมเดิมพันในเกม IIHF Championship ทั้งหมด
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EPL: ท็อตแนมชนะ Europe’s Wolves: Photos
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ท็อตแนมปลดเปลื้องความหวังของพวกเขาในการผ่านเข้ารอบสำหรับยูโรป้าลีกด้วยการเอาชนะหมาป่า สเปอร์สซึ่งอยู่ห้าคะแนนจากสี่อันดับแรกเพิ่มขึ้นเป็นหกในประตูที่แตกต่างกับเวสต์แฮมสามคะแนนตามหลังเอฟเวอร์ตันซึ่งเล่นต่อมาในวันอาทิตย์ มันเป็นชัยชนะที่สมควรได้รับสำหรับเจ้าของบ้านที่ตีไม้สามครั้งหลังจากสร้างโอกาสที่ยอดเยี่ยมมากมาย แฮร์รี่เคนซึ่งพยายามตีด้วยมือซ้ายอย่างสมบูรณ์แบบเดินไปยังสเปอร์สอย่างใจเย็นจากการส่งบอลครึ่งลูกที่สวยงามของปิแอร์ - เอมิลไฮแบร์ก หมาป่าขู่และบางครั้งก็ถูกบังคับให้ต้องเสี่ยงโชคในช่วงพักและทั้ง Kane และ Dele Alli ชกกันที่มือขวาเป็นเวลาสองสามวินาที Hodzberg ขึ้นนำเป็นสองเท่าของสเปอร์สอย่างน่าประหลาดใจก่อนอื่นต้องขอบคุณการย้ายของผู้รักษาประตู Wolf Rui Patricio Gareth Bale เพื่อย้ายบอลไปที่มุมล่างขวา Romain Saiss, Adam Traore และ Fabio Silva มีโอกาสที่ดีในการตอบสนองต่อผู้มาเยือน แต่นี่ไม่ใช่ครั้งแรกในฤดูกาลนี้ที่ Wolves ซึ่งจบอันดับที่ 12 ของตารางมีวันที่น่าผิดหวัง เครดิต: BBC Similar to: Download Download ... Related
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Ersan Ilyasova’s offseason patience pays off
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Free agency had ended but, for Ersan Ilyasova, the work had just begun. Scroll through the forward’s Instagram account, and you’d get a taste of how an NBA veteran stays busy when he doesn’t have an NBA contract. You’d see drill after sweat-soaking drill in a high school gymnasium. You’d see him get shots up in a blizzard. “No excuses,” he says. “I tried to work on my game every day,” Ilyasova said. “I truly believed an opportunity would come at some point. I always tried to be ready — to practice and lift, whatever it takes. And after months of work, finally, you’d see Ilyasova in a Utah Jazz uniform. “For this opportunity to come up, it’s a great one,” the forward said Thursday after his first practice in Salt Lake City. “I’m looking forward to it.” The Jazz officially added Ilyasova to their roster Wednesday, bolstering the team’s already deep bench in preparation for an even deeper playoff run. “I see it’s a great group of guys,” Ilyasova said. “The communication is there. They trust each other. I watched the games before — the way they play and the chemistry is at a high level. When you see the way they play, share the ball, move the ball, everybody back each other, this is what it takes to win a championship.” Ilyasova’s C.V. includes more than 850 regular season and playoff appearances over 12 years in the NBA. The Turkish forward averaged 20 minutes per game in the 2018 postseason with the 76ers. He logged 18 minutes a night in the playoffs two seasons with the Milwaukee Bucks. “He’s a pro,” Jazz head coach Quin Snyder said. “Any time you have that type of experience, it’s something you bring to the entire group.” The coach called Ilyasova’s skill set and personality a “plug-and-play” fit for this Jazz team. The team’s front office wouldn’t have come calling otherwise. “One thing we’re really conscious of is the chemistry of the team,” Snyder said. “Ersan wants to be a part of that. I think he’s anxious to contribute in any way that he can.” Ilyasova can provide even more size and shooting to the Jazz’s frontcourt. The forward stands 6-foot-9 and has shot 36.5 percent from 3 over his career. “This is the way I play,” Ilyasova said. “Obviously unselfish. If you’re open shoot. Share the ball. Pick up your guy.” But how quickly Ilyasova finds his role in Utah remains to be seen. “He’s got to assimilate. There’s a lot for him to get exposed to. But being a smart, intelligent player, a guy that knows how to play, he’ll fit in well,” Snyder said. “We don’t expect him to show up and be ready right away. That’s not to say he won’t be. But there’s an adjustment period and we’re patient with him. I want him to be patient with himself.” When it comes to waiting for the right moment, Ilyasova has already shown his willingness to be patient this season. “This team of course is having a great season,” he said. “I try to not interrupt and at the same time just kind of learn. As the season goes, I will pick it up.”
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When Relationships Fall Victim to Problem Gambling
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Many celebrate love, romance, and relationships during February and on Valentine’s Day. While no relationship is perfect, some endure significant hardship due to the presence of addiction, and gambling addiction is no exception. Did you know that relationship problems have been the top reported reason for seeking help by contacts to the 888-ADMIT-IT HelpLine for more than a decade? Contrary to social stigmas, individuals who struggle with problem gambling are not able to simply stop. Gambling addiction rewires the brain much in the same way as substance abuse, yet the symptoms are unseen, leaving loved ones unaware until the gambler hits “rock bottom.” Feelings like shame, guilt, and stress also flood these individuals and leave them hiding the consequences of problem gambling, exacerbating relationship difficulties and preventing them from seeking needed supports. Family members and other loved ones often do not know the extent of the gambler’s behaviors or debt. Over the past year, 76% of 888-ADMIT-IT HelpLine contacts reported the presence of family conflict, and 52% indicated family neglect as a result of problem gambling, with some also experiencing domestic violence and abuse [1]. It is imperative to understand that for every case of problem gambling, an average of 8-10 additional people are affected — often those closest to the gambler.  Research published in the Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health found that the negative effects of their partner’s gambling problems centered on four key areas — financial loss, emotional distress, impairment of mental and physical health, and erosion of their relationship [2]. Complicating matters further, the COVID-19 pandemic is causing heightened levels of emotional distress and mental health impacts across the population, leaving those suffering from this hidden addiction even more vulnerable. HelpLine data shows that a large percentage of problem gamblers are experiencing significant anxiety (68%) and depression (67%), with more than one in five admitting to suicidal thoughts (22%) and an appreciable number (13%) reporting neurological disorders. These mental health issues understandably extend to family members and loved ones.  The good news is that help and hope can be found through the 24/7, Confidential, and Multilingual 888-ADMIT-IT HelpLine for anyone in need, including loved ones. The HelpLine can also be reached by texting 321-978-0555, starting a live chat at gamblinghelp.org, emailing fccg@gamblinghelp.org, and messaging the FCCG on social media. Get connected to the resources that make a difference, including referrals to certified treatment providers! March is Problem Gambling Awareness Month March is Problem Gambling Awareness Month (PGAM), a grassroots effort to raise awareness about gambling disorder, classified by the American Psychiatric Association as a behavioral addiction, that impacts millions of Floridians who struggle directly with gambling related difficulties or are adversely affected by a loved one’s gambling problem. This year, our campaign theme is Shine the Light on Problem Gambling: Changing the Game. During this past year, the world has been forced to grapple with crippling impacts caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic. Many Florida residents, like many Americans, are struggling given the unforeseen consequences resulting from the pandemic. For disordered gamblers and their families, the effects of the virus can exacerbate already serious financial, psychological, legal, and other problems caused by gambling. Click here to learn more about PGAM and join the movement in raising awareness about the issue of problem gambling and the help and hope available through the 24/7, Confidential, and Multilingual Problem Gambling HelpLine! [1]  24-Hour Problem Gambling HelpLine Annual Report., 2020 ed., The Florida Council on Compulsive Gambling, Inc., 2020, 24-Hour Problem Gambling HelpLine Annual Report. [2] Abbott, M., DA. Abbott, S., Boyatzis, R., V. Braun, V., EM. Chan, A., Charmaz, K., . . . Volberg, R. (1970, January 01). Impacts of gambling problems on partners: Partners’ interpretations. Retrieved February 11, 2021, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/2195-3007-3-11
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2021 Australian Open: What to Watch on Tuesday Night
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Rod Laver Arena | 11 p.m. TuesdayAndrey Rublev vs. Daniil MedvedevAndrey Rubley and Daniil Medvedev secured the ATP Cup for Russia earlier this month, with neither player losing a singles match throughout. In their three meetings on the ATP Tour, Medvedev has come out on top each time, including in the quarterfinals of the U.S. Open in September.This may be Rublev’s chance to finally overcome his friendly rival. He has looked particularly dominant, not dropping a set throughout the tournament. His match against Casper Ruud ended after only two sets when the Norwegian withdrew with an injury. Going into the quarterfinals, Rublev has led the field in both percentage of first service points won and second service points won, a sign of how hard it has been for opponents to break his serve.Medvedev has also been playing well, aside from a chaotic, disorganized third round match against Filip Krajinovic. He has now won 18 matches in a row, with his last loss coming in October at a tournament in Vienna. Although the fast surface fits Medvedev’s flat baseline shots, Rublev’s open stance is well suited in defense, and we’re sure to see many dynamic, aggressive point.Rod Laver Arena | 3:30 a.m. WednesdayRafael Nadal vs. Stefanos TsitsipasRafael Nadal, the No. 2 seed, has moved smoothly through the first four rounds, no surprise for a player with 20 Grand Slam titles. Although Nadal won his only Australian Open title over a decade ago, he has reached the finals on four other occasions since, and is a clear favorite in his half of the draw to do so again. Nadal’s powerful topspin shots are well-suited to clay courts where he can drag opponents around with tightly angled shots. Nadal’s ability to exploit his opponent’s weaknesses with relentless pressure can break most players on their best days.Stefanos Tsitsipas, the ATP finals winner in 2019, is a study in unpredictability. The fifth seed has a capable all-court game, but lacks the consistency to execute match after match. The 22-year-old has worked to improve this aspect of his game, but needed five sets to push back unseeded Thanasi Kokkinakis in the second round. After receiving a walkover in the round of 16, Tsitsipas will be well rested and hoping for an advantage against one of the most mentally tough players on tour.
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5 Valentine Gift Ideas for Card Lovers
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Valentine’s Day is celebrated all over the world on 14th February every year. This day marks the end of the week of love, which starts on 7th February. Valentine’s Day is the perfect time to express your love and feelings for someone special in your life. Many couples are seen celebrating this day with a lot of enthusiasm and passion. There are a lot of Valentine’s Day-themed parties and get-togethers arranged during the time, especially for lovebirds. You can plan for such parties, dinner dates or romantic trips to celebrate the day of love.  You can also opt for a low-key celebration like exchanging gifts or a movie night. However, you may be out of creative ideas for a Valentine gift. Still you cannot show up to the celebration with a mediocre gift since your partner deserves only the best. While flowers, a box of chocolates and soft toys are usually the go-to gifts for everyone, you can try to think out of the box this time. If your partner is a card lover, you can use any one of the following quick gift ideas that they will cherish for years to come: Valentine’s Day Coupon If your partner loves playing online card games like rummy, you can share special bonus codes that are available exclusively for Valentine’s Day. Many online rummy providers like Junglee Rummy offer a variety of coupon codes and exclusive offers for their users. You can use these codes to play cash rummy games and win exciting prizes. Instead of going out, you both can play online rummy together and have a great time. Make sure you learn and understand all the rummy rules well before entering a cash game. Maybe you can learn this wonderful game from your partner too. Now that’s a productive Valentine’s Day! A Brand-new Deck of Cards This is one of the best and most affordable gifts to give a surprise to your partner on Valentine’s Day. If they love playing card games, you can always give them a new deck of cards. Many people might perceive this to be a simple idea, but it could be useful in several ways. Firstly, you and your partner can learn new card games and play them. To make your partner feel more special, you can give them a customized deck of cards. For example, you can have your photos printed at the back of each card. You both can use this brand-new deck to play a wide variety of card games and enjoy quality time together. A Deck of Cards with Love Messages This may not be a go-to gift for a lot of people. However, if your partner is crazy about card games, they would cherish it forever. It might be even more special if you have never given a love-letter or love-note to your partner before. To do this, you need to find a deck of cards that are blank on one side and have some unique design on the back. After finding such a deck, you can use a pen or a marker to write cute love notes on each card. You can pour out your heart and elaborate to your partner their importance in your life. This is a simple DIY gift idea that takes barely any time to make. A Set of Polaroid Cards Polaroid cameras are extremely popular today, especially with young people. You can often see youngsters clicking photos and selfies using a polaroid camera and then posting pictures of their polaroids on their social media. Since they are a major trend, how about gifting your partner polaroid cards. Sounds really fun, right? Well it is equally fun to create these cards too. You can shortlist your best pictures with your partner. It could be special moments, candid photos, holiday or vacation pictures, etc. Now get these pictures printed on card-sized polaroids. To make the gift even more romantic, add a special message or a note on every card. Arrange the cards in a photo album or place them in a customized box and give them to your partner. Now wait for their reaction! We are 100% sure that they would love this gift. If you have more time, you can also go a little overboard with this idea. Just make a tiny hole on the side of each picture and tie a ribbon to hang them on a wall. You can also stick the ribbon to the ceiling of your room so that each picture would float in the air. You can then decorate the room with balloons and flowers to make it more special! A Cake with Card Design A card cake is a unique gift idea for Valentine’s Day. There are a lot of cake designers who make customized cakes and pastries. You can ask a cake designer to make a cake with the queen of hearts design.  If not a cake, you can instead ask them to design pastries with four card suit symbols. Later you can get a card deck too to play card games while enjoying the cake or pastries. We hope that you have a great Valentine’s Day with your love or loved ones. If you are looking for platforms to play online rummy, you can always rely on Junglee Rummy. We are the most trusted rummy site and have over 25 million registered users. Here you can play a variety of games like free and cash games and rummy tournaments.  You can play with some of the most skilled rummy players to enhance your rummy skills. You can then join tournaments and win coveted prizes worth lakhs and crores of rupees. Download the rummy app now and get an exciting welcome bonus up to ₹8850!
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Partypoker adds new MyGame Whiz to Online Poker Client
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Every poker player wants to improve their game. It is quite common for poker players to use tools such as hand histories to review gameplay and try to make different decisions based on certain scenarios. At partypoker, the online poker platform has released a new tool called MyGame Whiz that allows players to improve their game and make fewer mistakes along the way. The new feature is an extension of the MyGame tool and works as a personal poker trainer. What is MyGame Whiz? New players can benefit from the MyGame Whiz tool for a number of reasons. Because the tool is a trainer, it helps to avoid common mistakes. The tool includes one-on-one communication to personalize the experience for each player. The tool studies each player’s game style, including how a hand is played. The tool has access to hand history and studies the hands of each player, not the opponent. Personal hand history is used to provide tips and suggestions on what you can do to improve your decision-making skills. Targeted messages allow you to make decisions in real time and improve your win/loss record. Each player will receive messages that are created for them specifically based on table actions. Interactive commentary is also provided as players compete to help with game moves. Choose to replay, save, and share hands as you like with this new tool. The more hands you play, the more advice you will receive. This helps to know how to strategize based on a wide range of poker hand situations. Another unique aspect to this tool is that questions can be asked to MyGame Whiz. By asking questions, you receive customized replays to help with any questions or advice needed. Creating a Poker Tutor Basically, partypoker has created a poker tutor for its members. With instant feedback, it’s like working with a real person online. The tool works for each player individually, just as a tutor would in real life. Every player can work to improve their game, no matter how skilled or experienced. The tool is specialized so it caters to your skill level. Partypoker officials pointed out that they wanted to create a tool that would give players something to use at the beginning of their poker journey to improve their game. It is particularly helpful for players who are brand-new to online poker. For new players, the tool includes report cards so you can track your progress. See what you have improved on as well as how you can make changes to improve in certain areas. If you have less time to study the game, the MyGame Whiz does the work for you. Simply review the details and you will be able to analyze your gaming and make smart decisions in the future as you play. Check out the new tool today by logging in to the partypoker client. Review your gaming and see what changes you can complete the improve each decision you make while playing in cash games and tournaments.
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Build a Beautiful Site in the WordPress Mobile Apps with Predesigned Page Layouts
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Build a Beautiful Site in the WordPress Mobile Apps with Predesigned Page Layouts We think you’ll love the new Starter Page Layouts feature. Thomas Bishop Your WordPress mobile app is a convenient way to create and manage your WordPress site. Now, you can design a new page right from your phone or tablet — and build the site of your dreams — with predesigned page layouts. Introducing starter page layouts Not all of us are designers, and building a page on your site with the layout in your mind can be intimidating and time-consuming — but it doesn’t have to be that way! Now when you create a new page on WordPress for iOS or Android, you can choose from premade layouts. You can also customize them to fit your needs, right from the block editor. Choosing a layout When you create a new page in the app, you’ll see a list of premade page layouts, including about pages, contact pages, team pages, services pages, and more. Whether you’re the owner of an online shop of sustainably made clothing, the founder of a newly formed digital magazine, or a financial strategist who’s just launched a consulting business, you can use these premade layouts to build the most essential pages on your website. Once you find a layout that you’d like to try, tap it to select it. After you’ve selected a layout, you can either preview it or create a new page with the chosen layout. Ready to try these new Starter Page Layouts? Be sure to update your WordPress app to the latest version. If you don’t have the app yet, download it for free, on both Android and iOS. We’d love to hear your feedback on these new layouts. Reach out to us from within the app by going to My Site, tapping your photo on the top right, tapping Help & Support,  and then selecting Contact Support. Like this:Like Loading... Related Previous PostShowcase Your Figma Designs on WordPress P2
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Serena’s husband rips tennis administrator after win
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Serena Williams' husband Alexis Ohanian has fired another shot at Madrid Open owner Ion Tiriac after Williams booked yet another Australian Open semi-final appearance.Williams was in imperious form in her quarter-final clash against Simona Halep, thoroughly dismantling the No.2 seed en-route to a 6-3 6-3 win at Rod Laver Arena.Watch the Australian Open with live streams of every court at 9Now. Click here to start watching!The 39-year-old has looked extremely sprightly after being forced to pull out of the French Open early last year through injury, chasing down balls defensively with the same ferocity she did earlier in her career. Williams' vintage showing so far in the Australian Open has silenced many of her critics who believed her chances of winning another Grand Slam title were slim, with Tiriac one of the more vocal critics.Williams was in untouchable form against Simona Halep in her Australian Open quarter-final clash (Getty)Following Williams' dominant display against Halep and advanced to her 40th Grand Slam semi-final, Ohanian made sure to stick the boot into Tiriac on social media."Good thing no one listens to that racist sexist (clown) Tiriac," he tweeted.The tweet wasn't the first time Ohanian had taken aim at Tiriac and called him racist and sexist, after also doing so late last year when Tiriac called out Williams' physique."At this age and the weight she is now, she does not move as easily as she did 15 years ago," Tiriac said on Romanian TV."Serena was a sensational player. If she had a little decency, she would retire." Williams' improved lateral movement has stood out so far in her Australian Open campaign, with her agility a far cry from the version of her fans saw in Melbourne Park last year when she was hampered by ankle and Achilles issues.Williams' coach Patrick Mouratoglou admitted this week that her withdrawal from the French Open last year had allowed the 23-time Grand Slam winner to get out of a "vicious circle".Williams' lateral movement has been noticeably improved after she had been hampered by injuries (Getty)"We've been struggling those last years because she had a lot of injuries, so she was not able to practice the way we wanted," he said."It's a bit of a vicious circle because when you can't practice well, you don't get fit. When you're not fit, you get more injured. We had to get out of this vicious circle."In Roland Garros she had an injury that could get really worse, and that would have been extremely bad. That was definitely the right decision to stop, to heal, and to start working hard because she was able after that to do the necessary work in order to get fit."Now we're more in a virtuous circle than a vicious one. You have to start that virtuous circle by being fit, then everything goes better."For a daily dose of the best of the breaking news and exclusive content from Wide World of Sports, subscribe to our newsletter by clicking here!
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Criticisms of Michael Slepian’s Stanford study on poker tells and hand movements (published 2015)
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Some places the study was featured. The following is reposted from a 2015 piece I wrote for Bluff magazine. It was originally located at this URL but has become unavailable due to Bluff going out of business. I saw this study mentioned recently in Maria Konnikova’s book ‘The Biggest Bluff’ and was reminded about this piece and noticed it was offline, so I wanted to share it again. A few notes on this piece: The original title below and was more negative-sounding than I liked; Bluff chose it. Also, if I could rewrite this piece now, I’d probably choose less negative-sounding phrasing in some places.  Regardless of the exact factors that might be at work in the found correlation, I realize it’s scientifically interesting that a significant correlation was found. But I also think it’s possible to draw simplistic and wrong conclusions from the study, and my piece hopefully gives more context about the factors that might be at work. Image on left taken from Michael Slepian’s media page. The Slepian Study on Betting Motions Doesn’t Pass Muster A 2013 study¹ conducted at Stanford University by graduate student Michael Slepian and associates found a correlation between the “smoothness” of a betting motion and the strength of the bettor’s hand. In a nutshell, there was a positive correlation found between betting motions perceived as “smooth” and “confident” and strong hands. The quality of the betting motions was judged by having experiment participants watch short clips of players making bets (taken from the 2009 WSOP Main Event) and estimate the hand strength of those bets. This experiment has gotten a lot of press over the last couple years. I first heard about it on NPR. Since, I’ve seen it referenced in poker blogs and articles and in a few mainstream news articles. I still occasionally hear people talk about it at the table when I play. I’ve had friends and family members reference it and send me links to it. It’s kind of weird how much attention it received, considering the tons of interesting studies that are constantly being done, but I guess it can be chalked up to the mystique and “sexiness” of poker tells. The article had more than casual interest for me. I’m a former professional poker player and the author of two books on poker behavior: Reading Poker Tells and Verbal Poker Tells. I’ve been asked quite a few times about my opinion on this study, and I’ve been meaning to look at the study more closely and write up my thoughts for a while. In this article, I’ll give some criticisms of the study and some suggestions for how this study (and similar studies) could be done better. This isn’t to denigrate the work of the experiment’s designers. I think this is an interesting study, and I hope it will encourage similar studies using poker as a means to study human behavior. But I do think it was flawed in a few ways, and it could be improved in many ways. That’s not to say that I think their conclusion is wrong; in fact, in my own experience, I think their conclusion is correct. I do, however, think it’s a very weak general correlation and will only be practically useful if you have a player-specific behavioral baseline. My main point is that this study is not enough, on its own, to cause us to be confident about the conclusion. I’ll give a few reasons for why I think the study is flawed, but the primary underlying reason is a common one for studies involving poker: the study’s organizers just don’t know enough about how poker works. I’ve read about several experiments involving poker where the organizers were very ignorant about some basic aspects of poker, and this affected the way the tests were set up and the conclusions that were reached (and this probably applies not just to poker-related studies but to many studies that involve an activity that requires a lot of experience to understand well). Poker can seem deceptively simple to people first learning it, and even to people who have played it for decades. Many bad players lose money at poker while believing that they’re good, or even great players. In the same way, experiment designers may falsely believe they understand the factors involved in a poker hand, while being far off the mark. Here are the flaws, as I see them, in this study: 1. The experimenters refer to all WSOP entrants as ‘professional poker players.’ This first mistake wouldn’t directly affect the experiment, but it does point to a basic misunderstanding of poker and the World Series of Poker, which might indirectly affect other aspects of the experiment and its conclusions. Here are a couple examples of this from the study: The World Series of Poker (WSOP), originating in 1970, brings together professional poker players every year (from the study’s supplemental materials) These findings are notable because the players in the stimulus clips were highly expert professionals competing in the high-stakes WSOP tournament. The WSOP Main Event is open to anyone and most entrants are far from being professional poker players. Categorizing someone’s poker skill can be difficult and subjective, but Kevin Mathers, a long-time poker industry worker, estimates that only 20% of WSOP Main Event entrants are professional (or professional-level) players. This also weakens the conclusion that the results are impressive due to the players analyzed being professional-level. While the correlation found in this experiment is still interesting, it is somewhat expected that amateur players would have behavioral inconsistencies. I’d be confident in predicting that a similar study done on only video clips of bets made by professional poker players would not find such a clear correlation. 2. Hand strength is based on comparing players’ hands This is a line from the study that explains their methodology for categorizing a player’s hand as ‘weak’ or ‘strong’: Each player’s objective likelihood of winning during the bet was known (WSOP displays these statistics on-screen; however, we kept this information from participants by obscuring part of the screen). They relied on the on-screen percentage graphics, which are displayed beside a player’s hand graphics in the broadcast. These graphics show the likelihood of a player’s hand winning; it does this by comparing it to the other players’ known hands. This makes it an illogical way to categorize whether a player believes he is betting a weak or strong hand. If this isn’t clear, here’s a quick example to make my point: A player has QQ and makes an all-in bet on a turn board of Q-10-10-8. Most people would say that this player has a strong hand and has every reason to believe he has a strong hand. But, if his opponent had 10-10, the player with Q-Q would have a 2.27% chance of winning with one card to come. According to this methodology, the player with the Q-Q would be judged as having a weak hand; if the test participants categorized that bet as representing a strong hand, they would be wrong. It’s not stated in the study or the supplemental materials if the experimenters accounted for such obvious cases of how using the percentage graphics might skew the results. It’s also not stated how the experimenters would handle river (last-round) bets, when one hand has a 100 percent winning percentage and the losing hand has 0 percent (the only exception would be a tie). It’s admittedly difficult to come up with hard-and-fast rules for categorizing hand strength for the purposes of such an experiment. As someone who has thought more than most about this problem, for the purpose of analyzing and categorizing poker tells, I know it’s a difficult task. But using the known percentages of one hand beating another known hand is clearly a flawed approach. The optimal approach would probably be to come up with a system that pits a poker hand against a logical hand range, considering the situation, or even a random hand range, and uses that percentage-of-winning to rank the player’s hand strength. If this resulted in too much hand-strength ambiguity, the experiment designers could throw out all hands where the hand strength fell within a certain medium-strength range. Such an approach would make it more likely that only strong hand bets and weak hand bets were being used and, equally important for an experiment like this, that the player believed he or she was betting either a strong or weak hand. 3. Situational factors were not used to categorize betting motions When considering poker-related behavior, situations are very important. A small continuation-bet on the flop is different in many ways from an all-in bet on the river. One way they are different: a small bet is unlikely to cause stress in the bettor, even if the bettor has a weak hand. Also, a player making a bet on an early round has a chance for improving his hand; whereas a player betting on the river has no chance to improve his hand. When a player bets on the river, he will almost always know whether he is bluffing or value-betting; this is often not the case on earlier rounds, when hand strength is more ambiguous and undefined. This experiment had no system for selecting the bets they chose for inclusion in the study. The usability of the clips was apparently based only on whether the clip meant certain visual needs of the experiment: i.e., did the footage show the entirety of the betting action and did it show the required amount of the bettor’s body? From the study: Research assistants, blind to experimental hypotheses, extracted each usable video in each installment, and in total extracted 22 videos (a standard number of stimuli for such studies; Ambady & Rosenthal, 1993) for Study 2 in the main text. Study 1 videos required a single player be in the frame from the chest-up, allowing for whole-body, face-only, and arms-only videos to be created by cropping the videos. These videos were therefore more rare, and the research assistants only acquired 20 such videos. The fact that clips were chosen only based on what they showed is not necessarily a problem. If a hand can be accurately categorized as strong or weak, then it doesn’t necessarily matter when during a hand it occurred. If there is a correlation between perceived betting motion quality and hand strength, then it will probably make itself known no matter the context of the bet. Choosing bets only from specific situations would have made the experiment stronger and probably would have led to more definite conclusions. It could also help address the problem of categorizing hand strength. For example, if the experiment designers had only considered bets above a certain size that had occurred on the river (when all cards are out and there are no draws or semi-bluffs to be made), then that would result in polarized hand strengths (i.e., these bets would be very likely to be made with either strong or weak hands). Also, the experiment’s method for picking clips sounds like it could theoretically result in all strong-hand bets being picked, or all weak-hand bets being picked. There is nothing in the experiment description that requires a certain amount of weak hands or strong hands. This is not in itself bad, but could affect the experiment in unforeseen ways. For example, if most of the betting motion clips chosen were taken from players betting strong hands (which would not be surprising, as most significant bets, especially post-flop, are for value), then this could introduce some unforeseen bias into the experiment. One way this might happen: when a video clip shows only the betting motion (and not, for example, the bettor’s entire torso or just the face, as were shown to some study groups), this focus might emphasize the bet in the viewer’s mind and make the bet seem stronger. And if most of the hands-only betting clips were of strong-hand bets (and I have no idea how many were), the study participants watching only the hand-motion betting clips would falsely appear to be making good guesses. My main point here is that thinking about the situational factors of a betting motion, and incorporating that into the experiment in some way, would have resulted in less ambiguity about the results. (It appears that it was difficult to find usable clips from a single WSOP event; in that case, the experimenters could just add footage from another WSOP Main Event to the study.) 4. The number of chips bet was not taken into account The experiment designers did not take into account the chips that were bet. In their words: During betting, each player pushes poker chips into the center of the table. Each chip has a specific color, which indicates a specific value. These values range from $25 to $100,000. This range of chip values has a crucial consequence for the current work. The number of chips does not correlate with the quality of the hand (see Table 1A in the main text). Players could move a stack of 20 chips into the center of the table, and this could be worth $500 or $2,000,000 (the winner of the 2009 WSOP won $8,547,042, thus the latter bet magnitude is a bet that can be made in the WSOP). Because no participants were professional poker players, nor considered themselves poker experts, they were not aware of chip values. They could not, then, use the number of chips as a valid cue to judge poker hand quality. It’s true that your average person would not know what the chip colors at the WSOP Main Event mean. But it seems naïve to think that seeing the chips being bet couldn’t possibly have an effect on the experiment. For one thing, the number of chips being bet could bias a participant to think a bet was stronger or weaker, whether correctly or incorrectly. What if all the strong-hand bets in the study were also bets that involved a lot of chips? (This is not implausible because smaller bets with weak hands are common early in a hand, when bets are small, whereas larger bets later in the hand are more likely to represent strong hands.) And what if some of the study participants were able to deduce (consciously or unconsciously) the strength of the bet from the number of chips? Also, it’s possible that some of the test participants were knowledgeable (consciously or not) about some WSOP chip colors and what their denominations were. Or they were able to deduce (consciously or not), from the arrangement and number of chips, what the chip values were. (For example, large denomination chips are generally required to be kept at the front of a player’s stack.) Again, this could have been addressed by selecting bets taken only from specific situations and only of certain bet sizes. If all bets chosen were above a certain bet size, and this was communicated to the study participants, then this would have lessened the impact of the chips being able to be seen. 5. Quality of “smoothness” was subjective The experiment was based on the perceptions of study participants watching the assembled video clips. It was not based on objective measurements of what constitutes “smoothness” of a betting motion. This was a known issue in the experiment: Thus, both player confidence and smoothness judgments significantly predicted likelihoods of winning, which suggests that movement smoothness might be a valid cue for assessing poker hand quality. It is unknown, however, how participants interpreted “smoothness” or whether the players’ movements that participants rated as smooth were truly smoother than other players’ movements. Other physical factors, such as speed, likely played a role. This is not a major criticism; I think using perception is a fine way to find a correlation, especially for a preliminary study. But I think it does mean that we have no reason to be confident in the idea that smoothness of betting motion is correlated with hand strength. If there is are correlations between betting motion and hand strength (which I believe there are), these could be due to other aspects of arm motion or hand motion, such as: the betting speed, the position of the hands, the height of the hand, or other, more obscure, factors. In summary Again, I don’t mean to denigrate the experiment designers and the work they’ve done. I think this was an interesting experiment, and I think it’s probable the correlation they noticed exists (however weak the correlation may be). Also, as someone who is very interested in poker behavior, I’d love to see similar studies be done. My main goal in writing these criticisms and suggestions was to emphasize that poker is complex, as is poker behavior. There are many behavioral factors in a seemingly simple hand of poker and taking these factors into account can make an experiment stronger and the results more conclusive. Patricia Cardner, PhD, EdD, is a poker player and the author of Positive Poker, a book about the psychological characteristics of professional poker players. She had this to say about poker’s use in scientific studies: “While researchers often have the best of intentions, it is difficult for them to fully understand the nuances of poker. Researchers who reach out to poker players for help can make more informed decisions about the research areas they choose to pursue, increase reliability and validity, and improve the overall quality of their results and conclusions.” ¹: Slepian, M.L., Young, S.G., Rutchick, A.M. & Ambady, N. Quality of Professional Players’ Poker Hands Is Perceived Accurately From Arm Motions. Psychological Science (2013) 24(11) 2335–2338. Related
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